In this chapter, the authors review the idea from a model called decision by sampling and show how they have used process tracing data to constrain the development of this model into a process model of choice. They explain how people counting wins will behave as if the subjective value for an attribute value is given by its rank position against other attribute values. The authors discuss how the sort of tally can be particularly robust and can be considered as optimal and also review evidence for the rank hypothesis in judgment and choice, and also evidence from neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging and single cell recording. They consider the attentional drift diffusion model and deal with a discussion of how the rank hypothesis and drift diffusion can be combined and developed into a new mathematical model of multiattribute choice, with modeling assumptions constrained by process data.