The industrial agrifood system is ecologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Agriculture is the leading contributor to climate change in the Anthropocene Era. Additionally, the global population is predicted to be nine billion people by the year 2050. The now scientific acknowledgement of these facts has prompted competing discourses on the better path forward to feed the world sustainably. These discourses can be generally grouped into the ‘sustainable intensification’ and ‘agroecology’ perspectives. This chapter provides an introduction to the edited book on contested sustainability discourses in the agrifood system.