Agroecology has played a key role in helping Cuba survive the acute crisis caused by the collapse of the socialist bloc in Europe in 1989-90 and the subsequent chronic crisis due the US trade embargo, which have prevented economic normalization on the island ever since socialist trade relations were lost. The history of agroecological transition in the Latin American region suggests that the most successful methodology for promoting farmer innovation and horizontal sharing and learning is the ‘Campesino a Campesino’ methodology (CAC). This chapter discusses the more collective process of agroecology based on CAC, which takes “food as a commons” as a given, is actually more effective at feeding people than the more conventional, individualistic and capitalist alternatives. The story of “CAC Agroecology Movement” in Cuba provides a lot of material for reflection on a variety of issues, from a variety of perspectives. From a natural science perspective, it speaks to the productivity of more complex and more integrated agroecosystems.