With the exception of Israel and to some extent Turkey, the systematic study of public opinion came late to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The chapter first discusses the significance and implications of this “missing dimension” in social science research in the MENA region. The chapter then describes the new opportunities for politically focused survey research that have more recently emerged. Both institutional development within the region and the activities of external researchers are discussed. Challenges and cautions as well as accomplishments are reviewed and assessed. An appendix lists publications-based politically focused survey research in the MENA.