This chapter aims to map out the field of gender and Middle East politics, highlighting differences in epistemology, ontology and methodology. It begins by discussing the legacies of colonialism in the study of gender in the Middle East and how scholars have attempted to challenge and undo those legacies. It then goes on to map out different approaches to studying gender and Middle East politics, considering some of the achievements, gaps and limitations in this regard. It ends by discussing the author’s own approach to researching gender and politics rooted in a feminist approach to knowledge production, teaching and activism.