The face of peace and security in Africa differs from Europe’s violent 20th century. While most African states today hold weaponry ranging from impressive to outdated, this arsenal is seldom used in interstate conflict. This chapter provides an overview of security and conflict in Africa. It introduces theoretical perspectives on peace and security of the EU, and summarises some of the key activities of the EU in Africa’s peace and security and teases out a number of characteristics of the EU’s policy. The chapter discusses the institutionalisation of the EU’s partnership on peace and security with the AU, with a focus on negotiation dynamics and contextual factors. Since 2014, the AU has pursued the goal of ‘silencing the guns’ on the African continent by 2020. Through its institutions and increasingly effective preventive diplomacy, the AU attempts to project African agency in peace and security; but this goal was not reached by 2020.