In this chapter we explore the impact of labour-market and educational institutions on youth labour-market performance across OECD countries for the 1985–2013 period. We build from different sources a data set including series about labour-market institutions, youth population, schooling and the vocational education and training participation rates. We estimate a dynamic panel model and articulate the analysis upon various age groups. Union density, the minimum wage and the level of economic activity stand out as important determinants of youth employability (educational attainment and expenditure on public education mattering to a lesser extent). VET participation also matters, although only in countries where the dual apprenticeship system is important.