This chapter explores perspectives on, and concepts of, sustainable consumption. It then identifies relevant political actors and traces developments in global sustainable consumption governance, depicts the current state of affairs, discusses obstacles to progress, and explores policy implications. The chapter delineates important new developments in sustainable consumption research. It explains more political weaknesses and obstacles than progress, and thereby indicated that the future of sustainable consumption governance may still look bleak. The chapter identifies the multitude of sustainability initiatives at the grassroots level pursuing and implementing alternative and reduced forms of consumption provides potential for change. It focuses on consumption in global environmental governance originally arose in the context of debates on the main causes of environmental problems. The chapter concludes that – while progress towards sustainable consumption is still far from satisfactory – two sources of hope can be identified: initiatives pursuing sustainable consumption as a goal are growing in number and reach and promising conceptual developments.