This chapter explores that China – with some 20 per cent of the earth's people – is already well placed to become one of the world's healthiest nations/regions during the first half of the current century. Health care involves the delivery of health services and is often an integral part of both secondary and tertiary prevention. In advanced prevention-oriented health care systems, public health practitioners play key roles in the planning and management of health care, as well as in the design and running of health protection and health promotion programmes. Achieving a tobacco-free world is hence widely recognised as being a central goal for global public health improvement policies. Lack of public education about the harm caused by products such as sugar sweetened beverages and products containing trans-fatty acids also plays a part. Low alcohol consumption spread evenly across a population generates cardiovascular health gains, along with other consumer benefits.