This chapter examines the issue of trade unionism and socio-economic differentiation indirectly through a consideration of the formation of collective action in rural Britain and its association with class. It focuses on the broad issue of the formation of collective action, of which trade unionism can be seen as one particular instance. The chapter explores the character of collective action in rural areas by drawing on the results of some research projects addressing the causes and consequences of socio-economic changes in six areas of Britain, namely Berkshire, the Cotswolds, Gower, Leicestershire, Norfolk and Warwickshire. The capitalist class, although having high levels of membership of local groups, had low levels of involvement in terms of campaigning. The connections between class and collective action have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years, with a wide range of positions being advanced. The construction of identity and value through localism and ruralism was a source of anguish and conflict for many people.