With the thirst for revenge directed at foreigners, the Morocco crisis marked a shift in public discourse from cordial welcome to a siege psychosis. This new wave of xenophobic nationalism was only intensified by the 'treasonous' Accord, the eruption of the first Balkan War and the state's policy of defensive militarist patriotism. The granting of civil liberties signified that the foreigner was welcome in the Radical Republic, particularly from 1901 when Radical politicians, in alliance with Socialists, Anarchists and Feminists, achieved periods of dominance in the French parliament. The chorus of cultural chauvinism which resounded through the French art press was then a counterfoil to this threat: 'Art is one of our most uncontested supremacies,' Georges Lecomte declared. Despite the Treaty of Algericas, signed on 7 April 1906, ensuring the independence of the Sultan of Morocco by Italy, Spain, Russia, Britain, Germany and France, and despite some commercial collaboration between France and Germany, rivalry had reached a peak by 1911.