This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book is about the changes that are taking place in the realm of planning practice and planning systems overall. It is about the search for new and more effective practices of development planning in contemporary society. The book illustrates the different ways in which changes are making their way into established planning practices and institutions. It provides a quite useful and wide-ranging perspective of such difficulties, in different politico-spatial as well as cultural contexts. The book expresses that change is not only inevitable but also necessary and desirable. Planning as an activity, both statutory and non-statutory, has enhanced its position in recent years within the EU. There has been a renaissance of interest in planning at all spatial levels, and this has been particularly reflected in its institutional framework.