This chapter examines the role of direct democratic institutions in 22 postcommunist states since 1989. An institutional analysis of postcommunist constitutions will first allows to draw a comparative picture of the type of institutions implemented. These legal considerations are then compared with the actual use of referendums and initiatives at the polls. This examination allows to assess the importance of direct democracy in the postcommunist context. The chapter shows that direct democratic devices are neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the democratization of a state. It presents some historical and theoretical considerations on the introduction of direct democratic devices in the new constitutions. The chapter argues that most countries introduced other democratic elements besides election rights in their constitutions, namely direct democratic institutions. It explores the functions that referendum and initiative perform within the political systems in Eastern and Central Europe.