This chapter argues that the ends of higher education are contestable given the involvements of HEIs in the wide range of aspects of modern society that it is involved in and the mutual obligations arising from its funding. It argues that these ends are properly contested in a modern liberal democratic society and that many voices should be heard about this matter. The chapter argues that the disciplinary voice adds important and telling insights and constraints on certain matters in teaching and learning in undergraduate education and in understanding the point of higher degree by research (HDR) studies more cogently and organising them sensibly. 'Constructive alignment' in higher education teaching theory is a name for the theory of John Biggs and Catherine Tang in which they bring together two lines of thought about teaching practice in higher education. Constructive alignment is really the merest common sense in higher educational teaching.