Nepal has experienced ongoing sociopolitical transformation since the 1950s. This chapter explores the history and current context surrounding the issues of citizenship, gender and statelessness in Nepal. It presents case studies that represent real-life situations where citizenship certificates could not be acquired despite legal provisions stating otherwise, due to the legal and constitutional problems. Citizenship certificates distinguish Nepali citizens from non-citizens of Nepal, and the refusal to provide citizenship certificates according to the laws of Nepal thus deems a person stateless. The problem of statelessness in Nepal is primarily of non-migratory nature, which means that persons become and remain stateless within their 'own country'. Nepal's ethnic and linguistic diversity should be understood as an asset, and citizenship granted through the appropriate procedures to all those who qualify regardless of their parentage or ethnolinguistic, cultural or regional heritage.