In academic literature and reports, a distinction is often drawn between statelessness in the migratory context and statelessness in situ. This distinction is used to address two different contexts in which statelessness arises. The first concept – statelessness in the migratory context – encompasses stateless persons who are migrants or have a migratory background. The second comprises stateless populations who are 'in their own country', meaning that they have 'significant and stable ties' with a country. This chapter focuses on Europe primarily, even though the issues discussed may be applicable to other parts of the world. It describes how the concepts are used in (academic) literature. The chapter demonstrates that in literature a consensus exists on the concepts of statelessness in situ and statelessness in the migratory context and what they entail.