This chapter re-examines Arendt's analysis of the mechanisms which gave rise to statelessness in the first part of the twentieth century and the forms of governance which she believed sustained such deprivation. The concept of statelessness occupies a central place in Arend's The Origins of Totalitarianism. Citizenship and gender are not significant in predicting livelihood outcomes, such as income and happiness, though gender is a leading indicator of education which in turn affects income and other livelihood outcomes. By focusing the analysis within the state, and by analysing the context in which stateless people live, it is possible to identify interests, potential cleavages, and arenas for engagement. This includes working with development agencies and donor governments to treat the stateless as a specific category of beneficiary in the hope that in so doing, they remedy some of the effects of discrimination and disempowerment.