This chapter presents Ottoman archaeology as a separate academic discipline, starting with an overview of the history of research since the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In addition, it discusses exchange systems within Ottoman archaeology from a Wallersteinian perspective, using as a case study 16th- to 18th-century Ottoman ceramic products from Western Turkey. This colorful decorated glazed tableware from Iznik and Kütahya was distributed to various cities and rural sites in- and outside the Ottoman Empire. Written sources (including probate registers) shed further light on the use of these ceramic objects in daily life compared to the actual archaeological artifacts found at excavations and surface surveys.