The chapter explores the work and theories of key early years thinkers and educationalists, including Pestalozzi, Owen, Froebel, McMillan, Dewey, Steiner and Montessori, who developed a philosophical approach to working with babies and young children. These are discussed in terms of their influence on others to establish good practice. The chapter considers a variety of teaching styles, including the importance of the key worker role; it looks at adult-led learning, child-led learning and a child’s independent learning; and it considers children’s transitions and continuous development. It also raises possible challenges for early years practitioners such as accountability, target setting and the variety of qualifications available.