What is positive education, and are there different conceptual boundaries? Why does it arise now? What is its origin? What is positive education about? What does it contribute that has not already been done and how does it differ from other existing orientations and practices? Where are the interventions implemented and why in these scenarios? What characteristics do they meet? When are these interventions carried out, i.e. what are the stages of the life cycle for which they are most oriented, and why in them? Who are the people in charge of positive education, how are they organized, or what different roles do they have? How does positive education work? Does it follow a theoretical or practical model of reference? Does it have a certain consensus? What variables are usually included in theoretical and practical models? Finally, the last, but not the least, question: what empirical evidence has there been up to date, which studies have shown efficacy, and which of these have been carried out in Spain? What characteristics do they meet, and what are the strengths and limitations of such research? Investigation? All of these questions are intended to give an answer to this publication, which has the general objective of making known in a rigorous and evidence-based manner this new discipline in the field not only of education, but also of evolutionary psychology and education, and related areas of information science. To this end, a systematic search has been made for the most outstanding impact publications that have been assigned to this new discipline, such as books, empirical articles, review articles, or intervention manuals, highlighting the most outstanding research groups. On the other hand, far from establishing the definitive bases of this discipline, it is intended to give a critical vision that generates another new set of questions to which to look for a response and to orient its future evolution in this way, suggesting possible lines of future research and possible gaps that are still to be developed.