This is an introduction to the research project that this volume is based on. Describing the overarching purpose and relevance of the research, as well as the research process, methodology, contexts and materials, this chapter contributes with a framework for readers of the individual chapters in Part One and Two. The cross-cultural analytical perspective central to the book is also introduced, and its relevance for understanding online music use in other parts of the world is established. The cities, Moscow and Stockholm, in which the study has been carried out are in the introduction geographically compared to each other and previous research in the field, and specificities and general patterns are outlined as a way of motivating the relevance of a comparative study on music streaming. Additionally, the introduction explains how streaming, throughout the volume, is understood and analyzed as part of wider online music practices, characterized by connected and mobile digital media use.