The political history of South Africa and its experiences with apartheid means members of some racial and ethnic groups, mainly Africans, have not developed equally compared to other racial/ethnic groups, especially in comparison to White South Africans. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), several countries are experiencing epidemiologic shifts from infectious/communicable diseases to chronic diseases. The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases in SSA has largely been interpreted as part of its demographic transition, especially given the declining child mortality and fertility rates for several countries in the sub-region. South Africa, arguably the wealthiest country in sub-Saharan Africa, faces severe challenges with its public health systems given the growing prevalence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the country. NCDs are the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Described as one of the major public health and development challenges of our time, NCDs, including cancer, diabetes, and hypertension, are known to have caused 38 million deaths in 2012.