Another area of work has been urban political ecology, which has opened up some innovative ways of approaching injustices in the city. Criticising previous environmental studies for their neglect of “the urban” and attacking urban studies for their marginalization of the environment, urban political ecologists have argued that the city is the “place where socio-environmental problems are experienced most acutely” ( Heynen et al. 2006 , p. 2). Particular attention has been paid to the ways in which cities are produced through hybrid processes that bring together social and ecological processes. For Heynen et al. (2006 ), the urban political ecology approach provides a means of unravelling the complex connections between economic, socio-cultural, political, and environmental processes that produce injustices within the city, as well as enabling discussions about urban sustainability to be re-positioned within the political realm:

Political ecology attempts to tease out who (or what) gains from and who pays for, who benefits from and who suffers (and in what ways) from particular processes of metabolic circulatory change.