Of all the Western academic disciplines, anthropology has had the most enduring impact on the lives of Indigenous peoples, framing them in various 19th and 20th century texts as the cultural 'Other' according to their allegedly 'primitive' character. In addition, the theory of epistemic injustice can enhance the dynamic interaction between law and ethics that is currently reshaping the social context of work within anthropology and archaeology. This chapter first describes the historical context necessary to understand epistemic injustice as it concerns Indigenous peoples and anthropology and situates that discussion within several contemporary case studies. It then engages the theoretical literature to see how theories of epistemic injustice can accurately describe the historical harms to Indigenous peoples, as well as the continuing harms that arise from inadequate legal and policy responses. The chapter also offers additional case studies demonstrating the continuing existence of hermeneutical injustice and testimonial injustice.