This chapter addresses rural minority aging through an examination of the research literature and consideration of methodological issues for research dealing with rural minority elders in the southeast United States. It reviews the research literature on rural minority aging in the southeast United States, emphasizing health and social services use and needs. The chapter discusses special circumstances and issues that must be considered in the design and conduct of research on rural minority elders. It suggests areas of particular importance for future research on the health and social service needs of rural minority elders. The number of minority elders in many Southeastern rural counties is substantial, as is the overall number of rural minority elders. Qualitative research designs, quantitative research designs, and research that incorporates qualitative as well as quantitative methods into their design are all appropriate for projects that examine the life and health of rural minority elders.