Historical evidence and experience from more than five decades of research in the United States has engendered a unifying definition of recovery that embodies individual change processes associated with improved health and wellness, self-empowerment, and a life of fulfillment. While the U.S. has the world’s highest rate of imprisonment, and the majority of those incarcerated are involved with drugs, impacting desistance and recovery requires addressing criminogenic thoughts and behaviors, as well as substance use. Because overall health and wellness are important aspects of recovery as well as desistance, this chapter discusses risk behaviors and physical health issues (particularly infectious diseases in regard to criminal justice populations) as well as recent advances with innovative interventions. The initial focus is on historical, empirical knowledge of recovery, and then on accomplishments realized among individuals involved in the criminal justice system. Conclusions support the benefit of a holistic approach (e.g., behavioral, physical, mental, emotional, and so forth) to desistance and recovery.