This chapter outlines a general theory of stress termed conservation of resources (COR). It provides an overarching framework to understand the nature of stress as a human phenomenon that is tied to people's experience regardless of the setting or context, be it work, home, hunt, or vacation. COR theory is a basic motivational theory and it is postulated that when this basic motivation is threatened or denied, stress ensues. It may be applied as a theoretical model that explains the etiology of burnout and the processes that are likely to accompany chronic, relatively low-level, work-related stress. COR theory proposes that loss is primary, but let us consider some of the other leading approaches. It suggests that intervention should be based on enhancing resources and eliminating vulnerability to resource loss. A cognitive approach to stress management might act to enhance people's sense of personality hardiness.