The development of the EU gender equality policies have, from their inception, been guided by the economic rationale of the EU. The protection of women from sex discrimination through the courts is most obvious and comprehensive in cases concerning equal treatment of women and men in the sphere of employment, and particularly in the area of the rights of female workers during and after pregnancy. Ultimately, however, the degree to which EU gender equality law has a real deterrent effect on discriminatory practices in the field of employment depends on the choice of remedies and sanctions at the national level.