This chapter provides an overview of modern health systems, the problems facing them, and their attempted solutions. Modern health systems have a proven track record in combatting infectious diseases, in some cases having eradicated them. The chapter shows both the successes of modern health systems in combatting infectious diseases and the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It elaborates the problems faced by health systems, as well as the flaws in attempts to resolve them. One set of problems concerns the perverse effects of dominant practices, which can undermine their own effectiveness. Another problem facing health systems in advanced welfare states is the increasing demand for long-term care. As reported by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the correlation between the demand for care and aging is weak. The chapter proposes the notion of sustainable healthcare as a second, more normative, sensitizing framework.