This chapter explores the educational context for developing children's spoken language and discusses research and initiatives which have placed a strong emphasis on the role that talk plays in learning. Children can readily identify some of the different kinds of talk that occur in the classroom, whether for social purposes and the establishment of relationships or for learning and communication. In Gemma's school, the development of children's spoken language is considered key to underpinning their learning in all areas of the curriculum and is valued by teachers and children alike. The project focused on providing resources and guidance for teachers in schools. It was highly influential in informing the recommendations for the Speaking and Listening requirements of the English National curriculum. Characteristic of many of the teacher or pupil interchanges that take place during whole-class teaching in primary schools is the initiation response feedback (IRE) or IRE sequence.