This chapter highlights the importance of rigorous planning for speaking and listening and, in addition, the need to plan specific and regular opportunities for assessing this area. The principles of 'Assessment for Learning' underpin the effective assessment of speaking and listening and support teachers' understanding of how children articulate their learning, knowledge and understanding through talk. These principles should underpin both assessment of talk and assessment through talk. Fluctuating policy with regard to spoken language has been mirrored in national curriculum assessment guidance. Each year, handbooks of guidance are published, laying down the statutory assessment requirements for each key stage. Both summative assessment and formative assessment are required. Assessment can be undertaken in whole-class teaching, during group work or in the plenary which is routinely used to assess children's understanding. Central to the notion of self-assessment is the belief that we learn best through interacting with others.