This chapter draws the reports prepared by the partners of the PRIVIREAL project to give a comparative analysis of the implementation of the 95/46/EC Directive on Data Protection in Member States of the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA). It assesses the law on data protection in the Newly Associated States (NAS) and its relationship to the requirements of the Directive. The chapter deals with the general law and focuses on general provisions of data protection law in Europe that do not apply specifically to medical research but this is not to say it could not concern it in certain circumstances. It analyzes the safeguards and the other means of protecting the standards of the Directive. The chapter demonstrates the condition of consent generally the use of a national identification number and finally on the conditions applying to processing for the purposes of historical research.