This chapter focuses on the provisions of the Directive applying in particular to medical research. It also focuses on the scope of certain concepts in relation to medical research, followed by consideration and comparison of exemptions in relation to medical research. The chapter explores the scope of some general concepts in relation to medical research; first it considers anonymization in relation to medical research. Anonymization of data is very often a safeguard imposed on data being processed for medical research which is subject to one of the exemptions in the Directive. In Greece, medical research is also not covered by the implemented provision but by another one, which requires anonymization of the data. The chapter also focuses on the exemptions to the Article 25 rules provided by the countries concerning medical research. Article 26 of the Directive mentions several cases where the principle stated in Article 25 could be exempted, but none of them directly concern medical research.