Any examination of Russo-American interaction in the Middle East must be assessed within the context of past American-Soviet and contemporary competition in the region between the two powers. Alliances and patterns of cooperation created in the Middle East during the Cold War continued to influence relations between the former superpowers in the post-bipolar era. The dramatic shifts in international diplomacy following the break up of the Soviet Union, and the post-September 11, 2001 global system, including the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and the US-led global war on terror, have mainly reinforced the existing foreign and security policies of both states toward the region.