The Middle East has been the main stage for competitions among great powers. In the era of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union dominated this region, and the struggles between them dictated the politics of the Middle Eastern region. Not until the 1960s did the People’s Republic of China (PRC) have any interest in this region. As China’s economic and military power has grown rapidly since the late 1970s, its presence in the Middle East has become increasingly influential. This chapter examines the major components, motivations, and impacts of China’s policy toward the Middle East.