India does not currently exercise a great deal of influence in the Middle East, but as a rising economic and political power on the world stage, it will likely play a critical role in the future of the region. New Delhi’s engagement with the Middle East, in configuration with its general approach to foreign policy, has been driven by a policy of non-alignment. However, recent dialogue between New Delhi and Washington, which started after the end of the Cold War, challenges this policy. Given the current international configuration of threats, challenges, and power, India finds itself at the crossroads of decisions regarding its foreign policy. In its approach to the Middle East, five factors impact New Delhi’s strategy: 1) regional power of China, 2) conflict over Kashmir with Pakistan, exasperated with possession of nuclear weapons by both states, 3) threat of Islamic terrorism, 4) increasing dependency on energy imports, and 5) existential need to uphold friendly relations with the United States-which also serves as the main frame for outlining India’s policy in the region.