During the Cold War, NATO’s direct interest and involvement in the greater Middle East was limited in scope and, at best, peripheral to its immediate mandate to defend Western Europe from a Soviet invasion. That changed with the break up of the Soviet Union and, most recently, following the September 11 attacks against the United States. The greater Middle East now figures prominently in NATO’s evolving strategic vision and outlook as the Alliance expands and its transformation from a Cold War-era institution continues to develop and progress.1 By default, the post-9/11 security environment characterized by international terrorism, the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), transnational crime, and instability emanating from weak and failed states, has forced the Alliance to reevaluate its posture towards the greater Middle East on a multitude of levels. This is demonstrated by NATO’s efforts to engage the region through cooperative frameworks and direct involvement in Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, and other theaters.