This chapter focuses specifically on New Zealand's migration system. In terms of the system of population flows that define New Zealand's international migration system, a critical turning point came in the early 1960s. The chapter reviews briefly the context within which an analysis of recent transformations in New Zealand's international migration system might usefully be situated. It presents an overview of the major changes in international migration to and from New Zealand with reference to two periods: a decade of optimism about immigration per se promoting economic growth and the development of a more diverse, multicultural society; and several years of reflection on the problems of integrating migrants into New Zealand's economy and society. The chapter examines characteristics of the country's contemporary international migration system with particular reference to the increasing demand for property and residence in New Zealand, and an intensifying debate about the place of both temporary and permanent migration in social transformation, economic development and national sovereignty.