This chapter focuses on the generic trends of the evolution of Portuguese agriculture, setting out the main features of the depeasantisation process and the emergence of the rural issue. It summarises the relevant trends and features of Portuguese agriculture and rural society. The Portuguese corporative regime was characterised by a strong nationalism. The wish to develop the Portuguese economy without any outside influence was expressed in refusal to adhere to the Marshall Plan after the Second World War. The Revolutionary period, characterised by enormous social, political and economic turmoil, paved the way for a number of very relevant changes that should be underlined. The chapter analyses the heterogeneous character of Portuguese family farming from both economic and social points of view. It discusses the main economic and social features of each type of family farming.