This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in this book. The book offer us different judgements on the current situation of the rural inhabitants of 'green ring' countries: most see them as undergoing forms of de-peasantisation but some note possibilities for re-peasantisation. These differences probably reflect not only real differences in social patterning and process between countries, but also differences in the historical perspectives of the authors. Peasantisation refers to processes of construction and institutionalisation of a peasantry, both as a concept and as a class or social stratum for itself. In a limited sense de-peasantisation deals with modernisation of farming. In a broader sense the concept also refers to the decreasing economic, social, cultural and political importance of farmers and food production workers in society. In post-socialist countries, the thesis of re-peasantisation has been presented in several different connections.