One of the major geographical events of the late twentieth century was the disintegration of the Cold War geopolitical order which dominated the relations between states since the end of World War Two. The bi-polar world of the Cold War, dominated by the United States and the Soviet Union, provided stability which has yet to be fully replaced by a new geopolitical order. This chapter examines a variety of scenarios for the new international political architecture which might replace the former world order. The association of changes in geopolitical orders with the rise and fall of superstates will be examined, as will the fragmentation and (re)emergence of nation states in the contested space of the new Europe. The territorial extent of individual sovereign states varies enormously. The Russian Federation, with a total land area of over 17 million square kilometres, remains the world's largest single state despite the loss of territory following the disintegration of the Soviet Union.