This chapter provides an overview of Indigenous peoples and security in the Arctic. It first outlines the diverse contexts and contemporary status of Arctic Indigenous peoples, then examines the relationship between Indigenous peoples and the fields of international relations and security studies. The chapter explains the relationship between Indigenous identity and the specific threats facing Indigenous peoples, namely the unequal relations of power and authority that exist between Indigenous peoples and the non-Indigenous societies and institutions of the states in which they reside, and the ontological relationship between Indigenous peoples and land. These two factors – possession of a non-dominant identity within their respective political contexts, and having their identities and well-being inherently tied to specific ecological systems – produce unique security issues for Indigenous peoples and particular challenges in adequately responding to those issues that threaten their survival and well-being. The chapter concludes with an overview of security issues facing Indigenous peoples across the circumpolar region.