The psychological impacts of extreme situations are a great concern and have become an issue of major importance for performance, well-being and the outcome of missions. This chapter discusses the examination of the impact of extreme situations on the psychological constructs of stress and recovery. Space analogues such as Antarctic stations are acknowledged as natural laboratories for the study of the effects of extreme situations on human behaviour. Long-term manned spaceflights are certainly one of the most challenging issue for space organisations. Extreme situations have provided researchers with a unique opportunity to investigate stress and recovery dimensions. Space simulation provides a good psychological analogue to explore multidimensional patterns of change in both stress and recovery over time. Monitoring of both psychological stress and recovery are a key issue for increasing athletes’ health, well-being, and performance. Regarding improvement in the recovery-stress balance, recovery activities should be based on individual preferences and fully integrated in the schedule of working or training program.