5.1 Cyber security and data protection are undoubtedly a significant challenge for both connected vehicles 1 and autonomous vehicles. Notoriously, in 2015 a pair of security researchers found a way to gain remote access to a Jeep Cherokee and take control of the engine, brakes and entertainment system. 2 This prompted the recall of 1.4 million vehicles. 3 Moreover, concerns surround the potential for ‘ransomware’ attacks along the lines of the ‘WannaCry’ virus which paralysed the NHS in May 2017. Equally, the possibility for terrorist incidents is obvious. At a more mundane level, ‘smart’ cars are capable of gathering a great deal of sensitive data – for example, about how often users go to the gym or where they worship – and it is important that this is safeguarded.