This chapter deals with violence perpetrated by humans against ecosystems and non-human environmental entities such as animals, rivers and mountains. It discusses different kinds of violence directed at ecosystems and environmental entities. The chapter proposes specific theoretical explanations for this violence by invoking concepts such as ‘ecocide’ and ‘theriocide’. Two major trends are of particular significance in regard to planetary health and well-being – climate change and systemic threats to ecological integrity. Violence is a product of changes to the natural environment. The treatment of non-human animals by humans is approached in several ways within criminology. There are multiple ways in which to connect violence with the environment. Violence against non-human animals has also been shown to negatively impact particular human inhabitants under conditions of social conflict, particularly colonial takeover. Changes to an ecosystem through human intervention occur through manipulation, contamination or destruction of these components.