In this concluding chapter, the editors of the volume filter through the findings of the empirical chapters and compare them to the propositions raised in the chapters of Part I. The aim and a significant part of the added value of this volume, is to test and improve on previous knowledge based on solid empirical evidence and identify lessons for policy makers on how to design and manage (not least politically) structural reforms in times of crises. Given the ongoing effort in the countries of Southern Europe, but also across the EU to design and implement structural reforms, this is a timely and useful contribution