The military retaliation to the embassy bombings was the first time in which the United States acknowledged that it was engaged in a preemptive strike against a violent non-state actor. Hence, the goal of the operation was not just to prevent future attacks by damaging Al-Qaeda's military infrastructure, but also to send a clear message regarding the cost involved in attacking American interests. While organizations such as the Taliban and some Al-Qaeda affiliates seek to recreate Afghanistan based on a fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam, other groups, such as the Haqqani Network, prefer to maintain the dominance of tribal and local governance. In addition, the United States tried to forge alliances and cooperation with warlords and other tribal leaders, and winning the hearts and minds of the local populace to bolster the legitimacy of the central Afghan government. The evolution of the Islamic State (ISIS) became the hallmark of the United States' war in Iraq.