Since the publication of Peace and Conflict 2012, developments in many regions and countries attest to the continuing problems of armed conflict, as well as the complexities of crisis management and post-conflict peacebuilding. For instance, the Egyptian military’s forcible removal of former president Mohamed Morsi in July 2013, and subsequent violent repression of the Muslim Brotherhood, highlights the deep challenges to democratization. While Egypt now teeters on the precipice of full-scale civil war, Syria has been engulfed in massive internal violence since mid-2011, exhibiting large-scale victimization of civilian populations, deep divisions among the rebel forces opposing the Assad regime, and growing internationalization of the conflict, with many regional actors supporting the opposing sides. In January 2013, the Malian government teetered on the edge of collapse under the threat of Islamist-led fighters moving from territory they controlled in northern Mali, but a French intervention turned back the rebels. The political crisis has stabilized, at least for the short term, as a peace agreement was reached with Tuareg rebel forces, new elections were held, and a UN peacekeeping operation was authorized. In Kenya, national elections held in April 2013 did not result in the widespread violence associated with the previous round of national elections in December 2007, which is a positive sign for the stability of the country.