This chapter describes the origins and evolution of all major and intermediate armed conflicts that were active as of December 31, 2012, reflecting developments since the publication of Peace and Conflict 2012. The cases are based on information in the Conflict Database maintained by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) at Uppsala University, Sweden (https://www.pcr.uu.se/research/UCDP/" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">https://www.pcr.uu.se/research/UCDP/).