ABSTRACT

A ccording to the latest information available from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) and Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), 26 intermediate and major armed conflicts were active worldwide in 2012 (Gleditsch et al. 2002).1 This number matches what was reported in the past two editions of Peace and Conflict (Hewitt 2010, 2012).2 In fact, the number is the same as in 1995, though some fluctuation was observed in the interim. When the Cold War era ended in 1990, 38 conflicts were active, the peak in the post-World War II period. By 1995, the number had declined sharply, representing the largest five-year decrease over the period. After a slight resurgence, the number dropped to just 20 conflicts in 2004, a level not observed since the mid-1970s. In 2005, however, the number of conflicts increased by seven, equaling 1960 as the largest annual jump after World War II. The number has since remained relatively stable.